What factors lead companies towards proactive environmentally responsible behaviours? Based on a synthesis of managerial cognition, strategic management and environmental management literatures, four clusters of environmental strategic types are described. This framework was developed empirically using qualitative data obtained in onsite visits and interviews with 33 organisations including local Chinese and multinational firms in China. The four clusters are labelled as compliance, competitiveness, ecological citizenship, and ecological leadership, and resemble the widely-cited four strategic types of reactors, defenders, analysers, and prospectors developed by Miles and Snow. Interestingly, these four clusters demonstrate different configurations of stakeholder orientation, organisational capabilities, opportunity-threat interpretations, and green initiative adoption.